Bugs & Buds
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 Native Orchid Species of Singapore
 
Situated at 1o north of the equator, right in the middle of South East Asia, Singapore has a typical equatorial climate. It used to be covered in luxuriant rainforest with various habitats such as the low land dipterocarp forest, secondary forests, mangroves, swamp forests, grassland and wasteland. 226 orchid species represented by some 60 genera were recorded in Singapore. About 75% of the country’s orchids are epiphytes and the rest are terrestrials.
 
It has many interesting species among the native orchids, including, one of the longest orchid plants, the climber, Vanilla griggithii; the largest orchid plant in the world, Grammatophyllum speciosum; one “leafless” genus, Taeniophyllum; and several “Jewels” such as Anoectochilus and Nephelaphyllum, etc
 
Below are some native orchid species of Singapore. However, most pictures are not taken in the wide.
 
 
Dendrobium singaporense
An orchid species named after Singapore
 
Den crumenatum
The pigeon orchid, Dendrobium crumenatum, is the most common epiphyte in Singapore. It can be seen on many roadside trees. It flowers 9 days after a heavy rainstorm
 
Dendrobium leonis
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore, its flowers are only 1.5 cm across, and have an extremely sweet vanilla-like fragrance which can be detected from a distance of 5 m
 
 
Dendrobium concinnum
an extinct species from the wild of Singapore 
 
 
 
Dendrobium lamellatum
an extinct species from the wild of Singapore
 
 
Dendrobium pulchellum
an extinct species from the wild of Singapore
 
 

Dendrobium secundum
Extinct from the wild of Singapore, it's leafless stem bears numerous-flowered inflorescence. The inflorescence are arranged along one side of the pseudobulb. This resembles a bottle brush; hence the common name "bottle brush orchid"
 
 
Dendrobium subulatum 
 
Bulbophyllum medusae
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore. The inflorescence consist of about 15 creamy yellow flowers arranged in a fan-shaped whorl or in a circle at the tip of the flower stalk. When the flowers are seen from afar, the lateral sepals look like silk threads hanging on the tree.
 
Bulbophyllum vaginatum
Often seen growing on the branches of Rain Trees. They usually cover an extensive area of a branch and present a spectacular sight during full bloom. The flowers are creamy yellow. About 15 of them are arranged in a fan-shaped whorl or in a circle at the tip of the scape.
 
Bulbophyllum lepidum 
Also known as Venus Fan Bulbophyllum.
 
 
Bulbophyllum membranaceum 
Among the smallest native orchids, it has very small flowers ca. 6 mm long that do not open completely
 
Bulbophyllum lobbii
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore
 
Bulbophyllum patens
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore
 
  
 
 
Eria javanica
Extinct from the wild of Singapore. Plants of this inconspicuous species grow in large clumps. A healthy plant can bear inflorescence as long as 40 cm, each with more than 40 flowers. The short-lived creamy white flowers are 4 cm across and have a light fragrance.
 
Eria pannea
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore 
 
Eria pulchella
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore 
 
 
Arundina gramminifolia
A terrestrial that can be frequently seen in open area in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Central Catchment area. It also know as the "bamboo orchid" because of its slender bamboo-like leaves. The size of the flower varies considerably, ranging from 4 cm to 8 cm wide.
 
Spathoglottis plicata
The most common terrestrial orchid of Singapore. It can be frequently seen in open area in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Central Catchment area
 
Eulophia graminea
A very hardy plant, common in Singapore, it can be found among grasses in wasteland 
 
 
 
 
Coelogyne pandurata
The flower of this species is characterised by its clear apple-green petals and sepals. The lip is conspicuously marked with black venations.
 
Cymbidium finlaysonianum
An epiphytes, it can still be found in some natural areas. The species grows around the tree trunk and its leaves are arranged in a form of basket
 
Flickingeria comata
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore 
 
Grammatophyllum speciosum
Also known as Tiger Orchid. A mature plant weighs over one tone, making it the largest orchid plant in the world. More than 30 flowers can be borne on the 2-m-long inflorescence. Individual flowers are 10 cm across.
 
Phalaenopsis conu cervi
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore
 
Pomatocalpa latifolia
 
 
Thrixspermum calceolus 
This wide-spread species is one of the semi-aquatic orchids whose lower half is submerged in water. The flowers are about 3 cm across.
 
Taeniophyllum obtusum
the “leafless” orchid, the stems of these plants are greatly reduced and covered by scale like leaves. The fleshy photosynthetic roots spread over the bark of its host tree. It can be found near swampy area in Singapore
 
Vanilla griffithii
An epiphytic climber found in the Upper Pierce Reservoir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Bulbophyllum trifolium

 
 

Bromheadia finlaysonianum

 
 
 
 

Bulbophyllum blumei

 
 

Cymbidium bicolor spp. pubescens

 
 
 
Coelogyne mayeriana 
 

Eulophia spectabilis

 
 

Galeola nudifolia

 
 

Liparis ferruginea

 
 

Plocoglottis javanica

 
 

Robiquetia spathulata

 
 

Taeniophyllum obtusum

 
 
 Thrixspermum trichoglotis
 
Thrixspermum amplexicaule
 
 
 
 
Thrixspermum amplexicaule (Thrixspermum lilacinum)
 
 
Thrixspermum notabile
 
Thrixspermum ridleyanum
 
Thrixspermum amplexicaule