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 Orchid Species of South East Asia

Orchid family is probably the largest flowering plant family, lager than the grass family (Poacaeae). There are an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 species of orchid worldwide and, of them, more than 10,000 species are found in South East Asia. Flowers of these orchid species come in many sizes, shapes and colours, and the plants themselves are almost equally diverse. This page shows some of the orchid species found in South East Asia ("SEA").
[Some of these species are available in Gardens by the Bay Gift Shop]

Acriopsis liliifolia [A. javanica]Most part of SEA
Roots and leaves have been used to treat fevers in Malaysia.


Appendicula ancepsMaritime SEA
Low land species

Appendicula Undulata, Southern Thailand & part of Malay Peninsula

Arundina gramminifoliaMost part of SEA
A terrestrial that can be frequently seen in open area in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Central Catchment area. It is also known as "bamboo orchid" because of its slender bamboo-like leaves. The size of the flower varies considerably, ranging from 4 cm to 8 cm wide.

Bromheadia finlaysoniana, S. Mainland SEA, Sumatra & Borneo
This terrestrial species grows in peaty, sandy or swampy soils in open well-lit areas

Bulbophyllum auratum, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra & Borneo

Bulbophyllum blumei [Synonym: Bulb. cuspidilingue]
Bulbophyllum falcatum (Non-SEA native species)
Bulbophyllum gracillimum, Maritime SEA
Bulbophyllum grandiflorumSumatra, sulawesi and moluccas

Bulbophyllum lepidum [Venus Fan Bulbophyllum], Mainland SEA, Sumatra & Borneo
Lowland species

Subsp. Bulb. siamense
Bulbophyllum lobbii, Western part of Mainland SEA & Borneo
Usually found growing on tree trunks and branches in the forest. The flowers have a spicy scent.

Bulbophyllum makoyanum, Philippines & Borneo

Bulbophyllum membranaceum, Maritime SEA
Among the smallest native orchids, it has very small flowers, 6 mm long that do not open completely.

Bulbophyllum medusae, Western part of Maritime SEA
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore. The inflorescence consist of about 15 creamy yellow flowers arranged in a fan-shaped whorl or in a circle at the tip of the flower stalk. When the flowers are seen from afar, the lateral sepals look like silk threads hanging on the tree.

Bulbophyllum patens
Flowers have highly modified straight lip and lightly scented.


Bulbophyllum purpurascens, Western part of Maritime SEA

Bulbophyllum romyi, Philippines

Bulbophyllum vaginatum, Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Borneo
Often seen on the branches of Rain Trees. They usually cover an extensive area of a branch and present a spectacular sight during full bloom. About 15 of creamy yellow flowers arrange in a fan-shaped whorl or in a circle at the tip of the scape.


Cirrhopetalum concinnum [Bulbophyllum trigonopus], S Thailand, Malay Peninsula & Borneo

Coelogyne pandurata, Sumatra, Malay peninsula and Borneo
The flower of this species is characterised by its clear apple-green petals and sepals. The lip is conspicuously marked with black venations.

Coelogyne papilosa, Borneo
Highland species

Coelogyne tomentosa, Western part of Maritime SEA
The plant produces a long, pendulous raceme bearing about 30 flowers which give off strong fragrance.

Cymbidium finlaysonianum, Malay peninsula, Sumatra & Philippines 

Dendrobium acerosumMost part of SEA

Dendrobium aloifoliumMost part of SEA

Dendrobium babiense, Borneo

Dendrobium bracteosum, Eastern part of Maritime SEA

Dendrobium cannaliculatum abba

Dendrobium concinnum, SEA
Dendrobium cruentum, Southern Thailand

Dendrobium crumenatum [Common name: Pigeon Orchid], SEA
The flower buds look like little pigeons and thus Dendrobium crumenatum gets its common name, "pigeon orchid". Dendrobium crumenatum, is the most common epiphyte in Singapore. It can be seen on many roadside trees. It flowers 9 days after a heavy rainstorm.

Dendrobium discolor, Indonesia

Dendrobium ellipsophyllum, Mainland SEA

Dendrobium grande, Borneo & southern Thailand

Dendrobium indivisum, Most part of SEA

Dendrobium lamellatum, Western part of Maritime SEA
Stem shaped like at flatten club. Flowers last for abt 7 days
Dendrobium leonis, S. Mainland SEA & W. Maritime SEA
An extinct species from the wild of Singapore. Its flowers are only 1.5 cm across. They have a extremely sweet vanilla-like fragrance which can be detected from a distance of 5 m.

Dendrobium lineale, New Guinea
Its cane-like pseudobulbs can grow up to 2m long and its inflorescences are up to 75cm in length
Dendrobium lowii, Sarawak & Borneo
Dendrobium lunatum, Philippines (Palawan)

Dendrobium officinale, S China, NE India, Thailand, Vietnam 
Its stem is used in traditional Chinese medicine 
Dendrobium oligophyllum, Southern Mainland SEA

Dendrobium (pending)

Dendrobium pandaneti, Thailand Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java & Borneo

Dendrobium pachyphyllum, Western parts of Mainland & Maritime SEA

Dendrobium singaporense, S Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo
Named after Singapore, one of the area where the species was found. The fragrant flowers do not open widely. They last for a few days.

Eria hyacinthoides, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra & Java

Eria obesa, Western part of Mainland SEA

Eria pulchella, Most part of Maritime SEA

Eulophia graminea, most part of SEA

Flickingeria commata, SEA

Grammatophyllum speciosum [Common name: Tiger Orchid], maritime SEA
World's largest orchid, plant weighs over 2 tons


Liparis latifolia, maritime SEA

Lockhartia lunifera (Non-native species)

Macradenia multiflora (South America species)

Oberonia mucronata, Maritime SEA

Papilionanthe teresMainland SEA & Indonesia
Parent of Vanda Miss Joaquim


Pelatantheria insectifera, Western part of Mainland SEA

Phaius tankervilliae, most part of SEA

Phalaenopsis aphrodite, Eastern part of Maritime SEA

Phalaenopsis deliciosa, Mainland SEA

Phalaenopsis cornucorvi, W. Maritime SEA & part of Mainland SEA

Pomatocalpa latifolia

Rodriguezia beacteata (South America species)